Tibet Autonomous Region is situated in the southwest frontier region of China and stands in the southwest part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It has been crowned as a beautiful, special and mysterious place for it is home to the world famous Mount Qomolangma, the world largest canyon—Brahmaputra River Canyon, enticing sacred mountains and holy lakes, resounding virgin forests, the spectacular and magnificent Potala Palace, distinctive temples, time-honored culture and arts, unique local life style as well as rare and precious plateau plants and animals.
All these rich natural and man-made landscapes exclusively contribute to the Tibetan tourist resources that are completely different from those of any other place in the world. Up to now, the Tibetan local lifestyle remains in the most original status compared with that of the modern people living out of the context of plateau. And it is the things remaining unchanged that make Tibet rich in value of appreciation.
As is known to all that Tibet is high in altitude and cold in weather. However, in time immemorial, Tibet was once blessed with humid and hot weather as well as subtropical forests and grasslands in a comparatively low altitude, which provided favorable conditions for human multiplying and living. Before 7 AD, incessant warfare spread across Tibet as many clan tribes were fighting over lands. Back then, Tubo (one of the tribes), was on a rising road and sought for development, possessing fertile farmlands and pastures in the valley of the Brahmaputra River. The earliest capital of Tubo was in today’s Yumbu-lha Khang, Naidong County, Shannan (a city in Tibet). Nangri Gampo, the 32nd prince of Tubo, reinforced his reign over the territory ever since he ascended the throne. Later, in order to get rid of the rebellious force inside the tribe, he moved the capital from Shannan all the way east to what is known as Jiama today (in today’s Mozhugongka County).
At the beginning of 7 AD, Sontzen Gampo, son of Nangri Gampo, succeeded to the throne and fulfilled his father’s ambition. He united the tribes in the plateau together and established the Tubo Kingdom, which marked the first slavery regime in Tibet.
To consolidate the new political power, Sontzen Gampo carried out a series of essential measures. For instance, he relocated the capital to Lassa, and constructed the Potala Palace and its surrounding houses and roads on the peak of Mt. Hongshan. All these measures gradually made Lassa the economic, political, and cultural centre of Tubo. Thus, Sontzen Gampo is known as the most important and most widely acknowledged Tibetan king in history.
In 650 AD, Sontzen Gampo died of illness. And then came the declining period of the Tubo Kingdom. The king, Chisong Detzen, maintained resorting to arms in conquering more lands and blindly went in for large-scale buildings, overburdening the ordinary people and increasingly deepening the social contradiction. Hence, social upheaval followed one another. In 823 AD, the dominant nobilities inside the kingdom contended with each other for power and the society was out of joint. Consequently, slaves staged an extensive uprising against the authority, striking a heavy blow at the reign of the slaveholders. Since then, the Tubo Kingdom completely disintegrated.
In the Yuan Dynasty, Tibet officially became a part of China, putting an end to its long-existing social division and delivering a peaceful life to the people. In the Ming and Qing Dynasty, the central government strengthened its rule over Tibet. In modern times, the Tibetan people, untied with the people of all nationalities, bravely opposed imperialist aggression and safeguarded the unification of the country.
On May 23, 1951, the people’s central government and the Tibetan local government jointly signed The Agreement on Peaceful Liberation of Tibet. In April, 1956, Tibet Autonomous Region was founded. Thence, Tibet stepped into a prosperous period of all-round development.